Introduction of Aviation into the EU ETS

On 2 February 2009, Directive 2008/101/C formally brought aviation into the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Aviation activities will be included in the EU ETS from 1 January 2012, although aircraft operators will have to submit benchmarking plans by 31 August 2009 and verified pre-compliance emissions reports by 31 March 2010. All flights arriving […]

Federal and Regional Climate Change Policy and Legislation in the United States

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a regional cooperative established in 2003 by states and provinces in the Northeastern United States and Canada to reduce GHG emissions. Current member are the US states of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont, and the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland […]

Consequential and Attributional Approaches to LCA: a Guide to Policy Makers with Specific Reference to Greenhouse Gas LCA of Biofuels

Policies for supporting biofuels, such as the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive RED, the Renewable Fuel Standard in the US, and the UK’s Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), require life cycle carbon reporting to ensure that biofuels achieve greenhouse gas reductions relative to fossil fuels. These policies tend not to distinguish between two types of life […]

What is a Carbon Footprint?

A carbon footprint is “the total set of GHG emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organisation, event or product” (Carbon Trust 2008). For example, the carbon footprint of flying from London to New York is 0.68 tonnes of CO2e1, and the carbon footprint of the UK in 2006 was 653 million tonnes of […]

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